Kalanga Linguistics Bibliography

Updated: June 8, 2021

Also see web resources for Shona: http://africanlanguages.org/shona.html

ALFANDEGA, P., Chigidi, W., Chimhundu, H. et al. (2008). A Unified Standard Orthography for Shona-Nyai Language Varieties (Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe).  2006, rev. 2008. CASAS Monograph 83.

ANDERSSON, Lars-Gunnar  & Tore Janson (1997). Languages in Botswana: language ecology in southern Africa. Longman Botswana. 204 p.

van BINSBERGEN, W.M.J., (1994). ‘Minority language, ethnicity and the state in two African situations: the Nkoya of Zambia and the Kalanga of Botswana’, in Fardon, R. & Furniss, G., ed., African languages, development and the state. London etc.: Routledge, 142-188. (online)

CHAKALISA, Given (2002). ‘A study of some word formation processes in Ikalanga Language’, BA Thesis (University of Botswana, Gaborone). 78 p.

CHEBANNE, Anderson M. (1993). A Kalanga summary grammar. Gaborone: University of Botswana.

CHEBANNE, Andy M. & Michael K. Rodewald & Klaus W. Pahlen (1995). Ngatikwaleni Ikalanga: A Manual for Writing Ikalanga as Spoken in Botswana. Botswana: The Botswana Society, 95 p.

CHEBANNE, Anderson M. & Daniel Schmidt (2010). Kalanga: Summary grammar. CASAS monograph 75. 270 p.

CHEBANNE, Anderson M. and Centre for Advanced Studies of African (Society 2006) The Unified Standard Orthography for Shona Languages Varieties: Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. CASAS series, monograph 37. 44 p.

CHEBANNE, Anderson (2010. ‘Kalanga Phonology, Morpho-Phonology and the Occurance of some ‘peculiar’ Phonological Relations’, Zimbabwe International Journal of Linguistics and Culture, vol. 1: 36-59 (pdf).

DOKE, Clement M. (1931). A Comparative Study of Shona Phonetics. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand Press. [UZ]

DOKE, Clement M. (1954). The Southern Bantu Languages. London: Oxford Univ. Press for the International African Institute.

DOKE, Clement M.  and Herbert Chimhundu (1931, 2005) Report on the Unification of the Shona Dialects: a Photographic Reprint with an Introduction by Herbert Chimhundu. Harare: The Allex Project, 2005.  A re-issue of Doke’s report of 1931 with extensive introduction. (abstract and pdf)

DOWNING, Laura J. & Bryan Gick (2001). ‘Voiceless tone depressors in Nambya and Botswana Kalang’a’, Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 27:1-11. (pdf).

ETHNOLOGUE entry: Kalanga [kck]

EANS, Jack E. (1991) ‘Summary of the Kalanga Orthography Debate Proceedings’, in van Waarden (ed.) Kalanga: Retrospect and Prospect.

FARDON, Richard & Graham Furniss (1994). African Languages, Development and the State.

FORTUNE, George (2004), ed. Essays on Shona Dialects, section on Kalanga pp. 106-128  (html) — copies of notes from lectures in the 1970s.

GARDNER, William L. (2001). ‘Consonant mutation in Shona languages’. Working Papers 2. S.l.: s.n. pages 51-59.

HASSELBRING, Sue (2000). A sociolinguistic survey of the languages of Botswana. Sociolinguistic Studies of Botswana Language Series 1. S.l.: Basarwa Languages Project. ii, 142 pages.

HACHIPOLA, Simooya J. (1998) A Survey of Minority Languages of Zimbabwe. Harare: University of Zimbabwe. 126 p.

HYMAN, Larry M. & Joyce T. Mathangwane (1998). ‘Tonal domains and depressor consonants in Ikalanga’, in Hyman, L. M. & C. W. Kisseberth, ed., Theoretical aspects of Bantu tone. Stanford: CSLI, 195-229.

KANGIRA, Jairos (2004). ‘Split Intransitivity in Kalanga’, Zambezia 31 (abstract with pdf).

KANGIRA, Jairos (2001). ‘Transitivity in Kalanga’, Unpublished MPhil dissertation (University of Zimbabwe).

KHUPE, Luzumo (2008). Sengadama: Kalanga-English, English-Kalanga Dictionary. Plumtree: ILizwi Centre, 80 p.

KULUBE, K. (1995). ‘Historical development of some class prefixes in Kalanga’. BA Honours thesis (University of Zimbabwe).

KWENA, S. D. (2003). Mazina e Bakalanga: Ikalanga names and their meanings, with additions by Albert G. T. K. Malikongwa. Francistown, Botswana: Mukani Action Trust, 128 p. [UB]


  • (2002). ‘Syntactic Domains in Ikalanga’, Ph.D Dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).
  • (2004), ‘Clausal and DP-internal Agreement in Ikalanga’, Studies in African Linguistics 33: 91-127 (abstract with pdf).
  • (2006a) ‘WH Constructions in Ikalanga: A Remnant Movement Analysis’, in Selected Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, ed. John Mugane et al. Somerville, MA. pp. 258-270 (abstract with pdf).
  • (2006b), ‘The role of tone and morphology in the syntax of the Ikalanga DP’, Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 24:291-309 (pdf).
  • (2007). ‘Who is where: Deriving right edge WH phrases in Ikalanga WH constructions’, Lingua 117:986-1007 (abstract).
  • (2009). ‘The “forgotten” structure of Ikalanga relatives’, Studies in African Linguistics, vol. 38: 131-154 (abstract with pdf).
  • (2011). ‘The syntactic distribution of argument and adjunct question word constructions in Ikalanga’, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics. 32:219–250 (abstract).

LETSHOLO, Rose M & Ken Safir. (— ). Ikalanga files – grammar sketch, anaphora sketch, questionnaire. African Anaphora Project, Rutgers University.—  based on ChiLilima.

MACHEKE, Nono M. (1999). Ngatizwidiyeni Ikalanga: A Kalanga/English Phrasebook. Francistown, Botswana: Mukani Action Campaign.

MALIKONGWA, Albert G. T. K. (19–). [no title]. A short manuscript grammar of Kalanga.  Botswana National Archives in Gaborone.

MARUMO, Shadrach S. (?) Difficulties in writing Ikalanga as a minority language : Practical lessons from Botswana. 6 p.


  • (1988). ‘A phonological analysis of Kalanga’, MA Thesis (University of Leeds), 60 p. [UB]
  • (1995) Kalanga Word List in the CBOLD Online data sources (3000 entries) — [in 2012, this link was not working]
  • (1998a). ‘Allomorphy and the morphology-syntax distinction in Ikalanga’, in Maddieson, I. & T. J. Hinnebusch (ed), Language History and Linguistic Description in Africa, Trenton NJ & Asmara: Africa World Press., pp. 217-228.
  • (1998b). ‘Aspirates: their development and depression in Ikalanga’, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 19:113-136. (link to pdf)
  • (1999a). Ikalanga Phonetics and Phonology: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 342 p. — Publication of the author’s dissertation (Phonetics and phonology of Ikalanga), University of California, 1996.    Reviewed by William Gardner in SIL electronic book review SILEBR 2004-011.
  • (1999b). ‘Diachrony in Ikalanga velarization’, Malilime: Malawian Journal of Linguistics 1:157-182.
  • (2001). ‘Suffix ordering in the Ikalanga verb stem: a case against The Repeated Morph Constraint’, South African journal of African languages 21:396-409.
  • (2002). ‘Reduplicatives and their tonology’, Journal of the Linguistics Association for SADC (Southern African Development Community) Universities 1:50-61.
  • (2003). ‘Morphological adaptation of foreign words in Setswana and Ikalanga’, Languages and linguistics (Fès), 12:65-84.
  • (2004). ‘The dual status of some verbs in Ikalanga’, Languages and linguistics (Fès), 13:23-36.

MATHANGWANE, Joyce T. & Larry M. Hyman (1999). ‘Meeussen’s rule at the phrase level in Kalanga’, in Finlayson, R. (Ed), African mosaic: festschrift for J. D. Louw, Pretoria: University of South Africa (UNISA).

MATHANGWANE, Joyce T. & E. Kweku Osam (2006), ‘Grammatical relations in Ikalanga’, Studies in African Linguistics 35:189-208 (abstract with pdf).

MHUNDWA, Philip H. (1999). ‘Comparative pragmatics: a contrastive survey of speech act categories in English, Setswana, Ikalanga and Shona’. In: Language, literature and society: a conference in honour of Bessie Head, p. 124-137. Ed. by Leloba S. Molema. Special issue of Marang. Gaborone: Dept. of English, Univ. of Botswana.

MOYO, H.J. (2002). ‘Lexical Metamorphosis of the Kalanga Language: Towards an Analysis of the Impact of Ndebele Domination of the Kalanga Language’, Zambezia, 29:142-8  (abstract and pdf)

NYAMUPACHITU, Jones T. M. (1989) ‘The Bechuanaland Protectorate – Southern Rhodesian international border: its effects on partitioned Ikalanga speaking society, 1890–1966’. BA Project Report (University of Botswana, Department of History), 58 p.

NYATI-RAMAHOBO, Lydia (2004). “The Language Situation in Botswana”, in L Nyati-Ramahobo ed., Language planning and policy in Africa.

NYATI-RAMAHOBO, Lydia & Andy Chebanne (2001). “The Development of Minority Languages for Adult Literacy in Botswana: Towards Cultural Diversity”. Paper presented at International Literacy Conference held at Cape Town, 13-17 Nov 2001. 24 p. (document)

PAHLEN, Klaus W. (1994). A manual for writing Kalanga, as spoken in Botswana. Kalanga Bible Translation Project, Francistown, Botswana. (Draft). 48 pp.

PAHLEN, Klaus W. (ed.). (1994a). Proceedings of the Kalanga research conference, April 5-6, 1994. Francistown (Botswana): Kalanga Bible Translation Project. Articles in that collection:

  • CHEBANNE, Anderson M. “The history of the Kalanga alphabet”
  • CHEBANNE, Anderson M. & Michael K. Rodewald, “Kalanga tone and word division”
  • HASSELBRING, Sue. “Kalanga word division readability study”
  • HOBONA, Boga. “Ikalanga writing problems”
  • MATUMO, Zacharia I. “Chart of Kalanga grammatical division”
  • PAHLEN “Guiding principles for word division in written Kalanga”
  • PAHLEN “Alternative rules for Kalanga word division”
  • PAHLEN “Kalanga punctuation”
  • PAHLEN “Spelling results of 1988”s
  • PAHLEN “Remaining problems in writing Kalanga”
  • RODEWALD, Michael K. “Suprasegmental features and orthographic considerations in Ikalanga.”
  • RODEWALD, Michael K. “Word division options for Ikalanga”
  • RODEWALD, Michael K. “Word division test results”

PAHLEN, Klaus W. (ed.) (1994b), Proceedings of the second Kalanga orthography conference, July 2-3, 1994. Francistown (Botswana): Kalanga Bible Translation Project. (1994), 46 p.

PHARO, Shathiso (1984). ‘A history of the Ntombo Kalanga people (Bapedi) up to 1966’.  BA Project Report (University of Botswana, Department of History).

RODEWALD, Michael K. (2008). ‘Context and Referential Singular/Plural Concords in Kalanga translated text’, LBJ e-Journal of Mission Studies. Vol. 3:11-31 (pdf).

SCHMIDT, Daniel J. ( — ) “Boundedness and unboundedness in Ikalanga tense/aspect.” Unpublished manuscript.

SCHMIDT, Daniel J. (1999). A Review of the New Testament Translation in Kalanga. Unpublished manuscript.

SINGABAPHA, Chipo T. ( — ). ‘The phonologization of English loanwords in Ikalanga and the implications of this process for the English Spelling and pronunciation by Ikalanga speakers’. BA Thesis (University of Botswana, no date). 58 p.

van WAARDEN, Catrien (ed.) Kalanga: Retrospect and Prospect — see entry below under Kalanga history.

WEBER, Ernst A. W. (1988). Introduction to Kalanga / Lilima. Pomeroy, South Africa: Enhlanhleni Lutheran Theological Seminary., 222 p. — Prepared for the Kalanga Bible Translation Course held at the Enhlanhleni Lutheran Theological Seminary; based on Wentzel 1961 and Somers 1987.

WENTZEL, Petrus Johannes (1961). Die Fonologie en Morfologie van Westelike Shona. M.A. Thesis (Cape Town: University of Stellenbosch), 552 p.

WENTZEL, Petrus Johannes and Masola Kumile (1983). Pretoria: Univ. South Africa.

  • Vol. 1 Nau dzabaKalanga: A History of the Kalanga. (Recorded by Masola Kumile, transcribed, translated and edited by P J Wentzel).
  • Vol. 2 Commentary
  • Vol 3: “The Relationship between Venda and Western Shona” (Wentzel’s PhD thesis, University of South Africa, Pretoria 1981.)