Updated: February 26, 2016

    To complement one submitted earlier

 

Download pdf version Orthography of TjiKalanga Final Document 23 Feb 09 

Download word version Kalanga Orthography

   

The Kalanga Alphabet

{a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, n’, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, y, z}

    Vowels

   { a, e, i, o, u }

 pala (scrap), -tala (draw line), bhika (cook)

e    pela (be finished),  leba (say it), zose (all)

  pila (worship) dila (pour), mbizi (zebra)

o  pola (cool down), tola (take),

  pula (thrush), tula (put load down), nhu (person)

 

   Long vowels

 aa    etjiyaa, woyaa

 ee   yewee, ee

 ii  tii,

 oo   yetjoo,

 uu  mhuu, duu

 

   Single Consonants.

 b  banga (wound), behha (wood curving), busi (smoke)

c  cansi (grass mat) , nzece ( ) , nca (raca)

d  dula (silo), ludo (love), dama (word)

 f     fala (absentminded), fodlo (tobacco), fa (die)

 g    gala (sit), -go (wasp), -gudo (baboon)

 h  hobe (fish), huni (firewood), hali (pot), hama (relative)

  hama (open your mouth), hema (hate), homu (amarula nuts) haba (red),

 mahwe (curdled milk), mahewu (sweet beer), he (chief),

   Some words have the same spelling but different sounds, these will be

  differentiated only in context e.g. word for relative and open your mouth

j  jita (climb-down), jatja (temporal shelter), njiba (dove)

k  kanyi (home), nkaka (milk), kupa (teak),

l  ludo (love), – linga (look), -loba (hit), lala(sleep)

m   mma (stand), -mona (twist), muka (wakeup)

n  naka (beauty), nonoka (slow), nhuwa (smell)

n’ n’ombe (cattle), n’anga (traditional healer), n’an’aba (a facial expression

of one who is about to cry)

p  pisa(burn), pala (scratch), paladza/palaja (destroy)

r   tjirara (cone shaped havest storage), bhaphiro (wing), bhururuka (fly)

s   siya (leave behind), senga(carry), sunga(tie), soba (  )

 t  tola (take) tate (father), tebula (pour out), tuma(send)

v  vanga ( mix), vula (water), vima(hunt)

w   wana (find), -wayenda (he went), wila (fall in)

y  yangu (mine), yemula (admire), yedu (ours)

z  zebe (ear), zina (name), zomola (nip forcefully)

   Consonant combinations

bgw   bgwe (stone), bgwila (licking), bgwisa (meliemeal), gambgwa (shell)

bh  bhabha(carry with your back), bhoma(smear), mabhubhu (immature grain

at harvest)

bv   bvuma (agree), bvubika (immense), bva (leave)

ch  chinsa (first harvest ceremony), tjichenene, zwichaphe(traditional attire)

 

dl  dla(eat), dlisa (feed/overeat), pedlo(near) fodlo( tobacco)

dz  dzeta(dodge), dzangu(mine), dzu(fish eagle), dzipa(strangle)

dzw  dzwala(sow),

gw  gwendo (journey), gwala(to be sick),

 

hh  hhala (hunger) nhuhha (youngman), hhi`ho (eye) hhoba (noise)   

hl  hla (fear), hlisa (fearful)

hw  hwa/shwa (ants), mahwa (good afternoon), mahwe (curdled milk)

hwita (swift)

  /wh/ was confused for /hw/ in earlier orthographies     

 

kh  #khama (strangle), khiba(apron), #borrowed from Ndebele/Zulu

kw  -kwala(write), kweba (pull),

khw  khwa( pound), bukhwilo ( peanuts meal), khwiba (steal)

 

mb   mbiganyi(comforter), mbaba(winter), mbeba (rat), mbuyu (baobab),

mbonje(scar)

mbgw  mbgwa (dog), mbgwibgwi, (gums) mbgweti (type of a tree)

mbh  mbhayilo (reward), mbhibhanyi(????)

mbv   mbvana (middle aged woman), mbvumbi (continuous light rain)

 

mf  mfi (the late), mfidzi (accomplisher)

mh   mhulu (calf), mheni (lightining), mhungubgwe (jackal),

  mhahha (luck), mhele (hyena)

mp   mpani (mopane tree), mpini (tool handle)

mpf  mfudze (manure), mfula (amarula tree)

mph  mpho (done free of charge)

 

mv  mvumbu (color grey), mvitjo (swing saw), mvumbinlidzo

(cobra snake), mvo (first milk)

mw  mwa (suck), fumwa (wealth), mweni (owner), mwina (burrow)

 

nd   nda (farm), ndebo (news), ndilo (plate),

ndh  ndhale (beer for sale)

ndhazula (a traditional dance done after drinking beer)

ndl  ndlana (September), ndlovu (surname),

ng  ngula (bath), ngina (come in), ngeno (here)

ngh  nghanhu (boundary), nghopi ( a bird?)

ngw  ngwena (crocodile), ngwa (war), ngwenu (now), ngwe (leopard)

nh  nhanga (play field), nhete (quiver) nhiba (garden), nhongo (male goat),

nhunji (waist)

n’h  n’hanje (grass), n’hingi (worker), n’holo (head), n’hiya

nhh  nhhambi (grapes), nhhuhha (young man), nhhi (foreigner/new come)

nj  njiba (dove), njele (intelligence), maxonja (mopane worm), njimbo(songs)

njh  njhela(under the barn), manjhilila(flying squirrel)

 

nk  nkabo (calabash), nkulu (elder bro/sister) nkoba (door)

nkhw  nkhwe (crack), nkhwa (slave)

nkw  nkwala (spoor), nkwele (type of a tree), nkwinya (friend)

 

nl  nlisi (shepard), nlume (man), nlapwa (patient), nlomo (mouth)

nlenje (culture)

nt    ntunhu (place), ntundo (urine), ntolo( long ago)

 

ntj  ntjili (rope), ntjenje (termite), mantja (truth)

nts  whentserele (a bird ), ntsara (drag), ntsi!( stop/ to be still)

ntshw  ntshwayilo (grass broom),

ns  nsetje (sand), nsi (day/day of rest/ sabbath)

 

nsw    nswanja (fruit tree),

 

ny  nyama (meat), nyoka (snake), nyola (tatoo)

nyunyi (birds), nyolo(wet), nyepa (lies)

nyw  nyunywana (small bird)

nz  nzano (play), nzi (home), nzembe (dove like bird)

 

nzw  nzwali (parent), nzwigwa (fruit tree mviyo)

ph  phoko (he goat not castrated), phapha (chopping wood)

pf   pfa (spit), pfula (kick & amarula fruit) pfumo/thumo (spear)

pw  pwe (sweet reed), pwaya (pounding), pwanya (crush)

sw  swibo knobkerrie), swina (squeeze out), swanja (fruit)

tj  tjaba(nation), tjedu (ours), tjidza (help), tjulu (anthill)

tjw  lutjwayo (branding),

 

th  thama (do), thikili (bundle of thatching grass), thaka (peer)

 

ts   tsatula (squeeze forcefully and suddenly), tsako

 

tsh   tshambani (step on), tsheduka (move a bit), tshibama

(to give birth)

 

tshw   dzwatshwatshwa (beetle like insect), tshwenya (bypass), tshwa (new)

 

wh  wha (hear), whalo (letters), whi (voice), whali (a type of a bird),

whentserele (a bird), whilila (listen), Whuku (Chicken)

/wh/ was confused with /`hw/ in some earlier orthographies by none speakers of Kalanga

zw   zwedu (ours), zwala (give birth), zwinhu (things)

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